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 (1) The time difference of arrival (TDOA)-based localization

TDOA: Source location is the intersection point of hyperbolas in 2D

 The flowchart for Linear Least Square Estimation (LLSE)    The flowchart for NLS with Gauss–Newton estimation     The results of localization using LLSE and NLS with Gauss–Newton estimation methods

(2) The spectra ratio-based localization

S7 source location is estimated by the proposed new water tank model with grids (10x10x10)

The detection factor (DF) in 3D spaceThe detection factor (DF) in 2D (x-y plane) space at z-coordinate of 1.09mSource locations are estimated by three water tank models with grids (10x10x10)Source locations are estimated with two grid dimensions for bubble source S6