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Characterization

Photo for constant flow bubbles    The signal for constant flow bubbles in time and frequency domains The total energy vs flow rate (nitrogen)  The total energy vs jet velocity (nitrogen)The total energy vs flow rate (methane)The total energy vs jet velocity (methane)

The relation between the total energy and the effective bubble number

  Photo for a few bubbles    The signal for a few bubbles in time and frequency domains The histograms of resonant frequency for different  needle diameters (nitrogen) The histograms of resonant frequency for different  needle diameters (methane)

Relation between resonant frequency and needle diameter. Note: for a specific needle different flow rates were tested ranging from 5 µL/min to 200 µL/min, as shown in the legend

Relation between resonant frequency and needle diameter to the power minus one third. Note: for a specific needle different flow rates were tested ranging from 5 µL/min to 200 µL/min, as shown in the legend